ISLAM AND INDIA
Before i start, i would like to thanks my friend *** for inspiring me to write this post. What make me write is that because i came to know that still many people around the world doesn’t knows how INDIA came into existence or its culture, history, religious facts and even the divide of INDIA, PAKISTAN & BANGLADESH.
i will explain as much as i can with authentic information & reference quoted as [r]. Also i request you to read the full post/article and i will try my best to make it as short as possible but i highly doubt because there is a lot to explain.
please be patient and read the full post because its a very long long story to tell.
LETS begin from the start.
|This section has references or sources. We tried our best to improve this section by adding citations/links to reliable sources. Un-sourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2013)
please see: [r] = reference/source
HOW ISLAM ENTERED INDIA?
Islam first came to India with Arab trade as early as 7th century AD to Malabar Coast in South India. Islam arrived in north India in 12th century with Turkic invasions and has since become a part of India’s religious and cultural heritage.
Jama Masjid, Delhi, one of the largest mosques in the “Asia-Pacific” region.
Trade relations have existed between Arabia and the Indian subcontinent from ancient times. Even in the pre-Islamic era, Arab traders used to visit the Malabar region, which linked them with the ports of South East Asia. Newly Islamised Arabs were Islam’s first contact with India. According to Historians Elliot and Dowson in their book The History of India as told by its own Historians, the first ship bearing Muslim travelers was seen on the Indian coast as early as 630 AD. H.G. Rawlinson, in his book: Ancient and Medieval History of India claims the first Arab Muslims settled on the Indian coast in the last part of the 7th century AD. Shaykh Zainuddin Makhdum’s “Tuhfat al-Mujahidin” is also a reliable work. This fact is corroborated, by J. Sturrock in his South Kanara and Madras Districts Manuals, and also by Haridas Bhattacharya in Cultural Heritage of India Vol. IV. It was with the advent of Islam that the Arabs became a prominent cultural force in the world. The Arab merchants and traders became the carriers of the new religion and they propagated it wherever they went.
In Malabar, the Mappilas may have been the first community to convert to Islam as they were more closely connected with the Arabs than others. Intensive missionary activities were carried out along the coast and a number of natives also embraced Islam. These new converts were now added to the Mappila community. Thus among the Mappilas, we find, both the descendants of the Arabs through local women and the converts from among the local people.
In the first half of the 10th century, Mahmud of Ghazni added the Punjab to the Ghaznavid Empire and conducted several raids deeper into modern day India. In 11th century, Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud played significant role. A more successful invasion came at the end of the 12th century by Muhammad of Ghor. This eventually led to the formation of the Delhi Sultanate.
There is much evidence in history to show that Arabs and Muslims interacted with India and Indians from the very early days of Islam, if not before the arrival of Islam in Arabia. Arab traders transmitted the numeral system developed by Indians to the Middle East and Europe.
Many Sanskrit books were translated into Arabic as early as the Eighth century. George Saliba writes in his book Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance that “some major Sanskrit texts began to be translated during the reign of the second Abbasid caliph al-Mansur, if not before; some texts on logic even before that, and it has been generally accepted that the Persian and Sanskrit texts, few as they were, were indeed the first to be translated.”
Diversity of Islam in India
( click on the links the read more in details )
Mausoleum of 1 st Wali–ul–Hind:Moulai Abadullah, Khambat, Gujrat, era 1050-1100AD
Dawoodi Bohra 52 nd Dai Sayyedna Mohd. Burhanuddin, with Dawat office at Mumbai
During Islamic rule in India
The Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent led to widespread carnage because Muslims regarded the Hindus as infidels and therefore slaughtered and converted millions of Hindus. Will Durant argued in his 1935 book The Story of Civilization: Our Oriental Heritage (page 459):
|“||The Mohammedan Conquest of India is probably the bloodiest story in history. It is a discouraging tale, for its evident moral is that civilization is a precarious thing, whose delicate complex of order and liberty, culture and peace may at any time be overthrown by barbarians invading from without or multiplying within. The Hindus had allowed their strength to be wasted in internal division and war; they had adopted religions like Buddhism and Jainism, which unnerved them for the tasks of life; they had failed to organize their forces for the protection of their frontiers and their capitals, their wealth and their freedom, from the hordes of Scythians, Huns, Afghans and Turks hovering about India’s boundaries and waiting for national weakness to let them in. For four hundred years (600–1000 A.D.) India invited conquest; and at last it came.||”|
There is no official estimate of the total death toll of Hindus at the hands of Muslims.
As Braudel put it: “The levies it had to pay were so crushing that one catastrophic harvest was enough to unleash famines and epidemics capable of killing a million people at a time. Appalling poverty was the constant counterpart of the conquerors’ opulence.”
The backward castes of Hinduism suffered worst. Monarchs (belonging to backward castes) such as Khusrau Bhangi Khan, Hemchandra and Garha-Katanga were knocked off their throne and executed. Backward caste saints like Namadeva[r] were arrested, while women like Kanhopatra were forced to commit suicide. Ghisadis have an “Urdu” title.[r]
Prof. K.S. Lal, suggests a calculation in his book Growth of Muslim Population in Medieval India which estimates that between the years 1000 AD and 1500 AD the population of Hindus decreased by 80 million. Even those Hindus who converted to Islam were not immune from persecution, which was illustrated by the Muslim Caste System in India as established by Ziauddin al-Barani in theFatawa-i Jahandari. where they were regarded as “Ajlaf” caste and subjected to severe discrimination by the “Ashraf” castes.
In a subsequent communication, Hajjaj reiterated that all able-bodied men were to be killed, and that their underage sons and daughters were to be imprisoned and retained as hostages. Qasim obeyed, and on his arrival at the town of Brahminabad massacred between 6,000 and 16,000 of the defending forces. The historian, Upendra Thakur records the persecution of Hindus and Buddhists:
Muhammad bin Qasim (8th century)
during his conquest of Sindh (in present day Pakistan), assaulted the town of Debal and destroyed its great temple .[r] He then built a mosque over the remains of the original temple at Debal and later in towns of Nerun and Sadusan (Sehwan)[r2][r3] After each battle all fighting men were executed and their wives and children enslaved. One fifth of the booty and slaves were dispatched back to Hajjaj and the Caliph.[r]
After the conquest, Muhammad bin Qasim adopted a controversial policy, asking for acceptance of Islamic Sharia law, in return for non-interference in their religious practice,.[r]No further mass conversions were attempted and the destruction of temples such as the Sun Temple at Multan was forbidden.[r]
Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni, Sultan of the Ghaznavid empire, invaded the Indian subcontinent during the early 11th century. His campaigns across the gangetic plains are often cited for their iconoclast plundering and destruction of temples such as those at Mathura and he looked upon their destruction as an act of “jihad“.
Pradyumna Prasad Karan further describes Mahmud’s invasion as one in which he put “thousands of Hindus to the sword” and made a pastime of “raising pyramids of the skulls of the Hindus”
Somanatha Temple Prabhas Patan, Gujarat, from the Archaeological Survey of India, taken by D.H. Sykes in c.1869
Mahmud of Ghazni sacked the second Somnath Temple in 1026, and looted it of gems and precious stones and the famous Shiva lingam of the temple was destroyed .[r] Later the temple was demolished by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1706.
Muhammad Ghori committed genocide against Hindus at Kol (modern Aligarh), Kalinjar and Varanasi, according to Hasan Nizami’s Taj-ul-Maasir, 20,000 Hindu prisoners were slaughtered and their heads offered to crows.
Timur the Lame’s campaign against India
Tīmūr bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور – Tēmōr, “iron“) (1336 – February 1405), known in the West as Tamerlane, was a 14th-century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent, conqueror of much of western and central Asia, and founder of the Timurid Empire and Timurid dynasty (1370–1405) in Central Asia, which survived in some form until 1857. Perhaps, he is more commonly known by his pejorative Persian name Timur-e Lang (Persian: تیمور لنگ) which translates to Timur the Lame, as he was lame after sustaining an injury to the leg in battle.
Informed about civil war in India, Timur began a trek starting in 1397 to invade the territory of the reigning Sultan Nasir-u Din Mehmud of the Tughlaq Dynasty in the north Indian city of Delhi. Timur crossed the Indus River at Attock on 24 September. The capture of towns and villages was often followed by the massacre of their inhabitants and the raping of their women, as well as pillaging to support his massive army. Timur wrote many times in his memoirs of his specific disdain for the ‘idolatrous’ Hindus
on 17 December 1398. Timur entered Delhi and the city was sacked, destroyed, and left in ruins. Before the battle for Delhi, Timur executed more than 100,000 captives.
Timur himself recorded the invasions in his memoirs, collectively known as Tuzk-i-Timuri. According to Malfuzat-i-Timuri, Timur targeted Hindus. In his own words, “Excepting the quarter of the saiyids, the ‘ulama and the other Musalmans, the whole city was sacked”. In his descriptions of the Loni massacre he wrote, “..Next day I gave orders that the Musalman prisoners should be separated and saved.”
During the ransacking of Delhi, almost all inhabitants not killed were captured and enslaved.
Timur left Delhi in approximately January 1399. In April he had returned to his own capital beyond the Oxus (Amu Darya). Immense quantities of spoils were taken from India. According to Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo, 90 captured elephants were employed merely to carry precious stones looted from his conquest, so as to erect a mosque at Samarkand — what historians today believe is the enormous Bibi-Khanym Mosque. Ironically, the mosque was constructed too quickly and suffered greatly from disrepair within a few decades of its construction. Journalist and author John Keay in his book India: A History: From the Earliest Civilisations to the Boom of the Twenty-First Century notes that the Hindu population was massacred or enslaved. In his memoir, Timus writes about his acts, “Although I was desirous of sparing them, I could not succeed, for it was the will of God that this calamity should befall the city.”[r] Before the battle of 1398 where Timur took control of Delhi, he had many Hindus as prisoners. One lakh (1,00,000) Hindus prisoners were killed before he attacked Delhi and many more were killed afterwards.[r]
Historical records compiled by Muslim historian Maulana Hakim Saiyid Abdul Hai attest to the iconoclasm of Qutb-ud-din Aybak. The first mosque built in Delhi, the “Quwwat al-Islam” was built after the demolition of the Hindu temple built previously by Prithvi Raj and certain parts of the temple were left outside the mosque proper. (Maulana Hakim Saiyid Abdul Hai “Hindustan Islami Ahad Mein” (Hindustan under Islamic rule), Eng Trans by Maulana Abdul Hasan Nadwi)
Another ruler of the sultanate, Shams-ud-din Iltutmish, conquered and subjugated the Hindu pilgrimage site Varanasi in the 11th century and he continued the destruction of Hindu temples and idols that had begun during the first attack in 1194.
Firuz Shah TughlaqFiruz Shah Tughluq was the third ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. The “Tarikh-i-Firuz Shah” is a historical record written during his reign that attests to the systematic persecution of Hindus under his rule.(r) In particular, it records atrocities committed against Hindu Brahmin priests who refused to convert to Islam:
|“||An order was accordingly given to the Brahman and was brought before Sultan. The true faith was declared to the Brahman and the right course pointed out. but he refused to accept it. A pile was risen on which the Kaffir with his hands and legs tied was thrown into and the wooden tablet on the top. The pile was lit at two places his head and his feet. The fire first reached him in the feet and drew from him a cry and then fire completely enveloped him. Behold Sultan for his strict adherence to law and rectitude. (r)
Under his rule, Hindus who were forced to pay the mandatory Jizya tax were recorded as infidels, their communities monitored and, if they violated Imperial ordinances and built temples, they were destroyed. In particular, an incident in the village of Gohana in Haryana was recorded in the “Insha-i-Mahry” (another historical record written by Amud Din Abdullah bin Mahru) where Hindus had erected a deity and were arrested, brought to the palace and executed en-masse.
In 1230, the Hindu King of Odisha Anangabhima III consolidated his rule and proclaimed that an attack on Odisha constituted an attack on the king’s god. A sign of Anangabhima’s determination to protect Hindu culture is the fact that he named is new capital in Cuttack “Abhinava Varanasi.” His anxieties about further Muslim advances in Odisha proved to be well founded.
Ulugh Khan’s expedition and the sack of Srirangam (14th century)
In 1323 Ulugh Khan began his invasions of the Hindu kingdoms of South India. At Srirangam the invading army desecrated the shrine and killed 12,000 unarmed ascetics. The illustrious Vaishnava philosopher Sri Vedanta Desika, hid himself amongst the corpses together with the sole manuscript of the Srutaprakasika, the magnum opus of Sri Sudarsana Suri whose eyes were put out, and also the latter’s two sons. When the massacre was over, Sri Vedanta Desika and his followers fled to Satyamangalam in Mysore, where Sri Vedanta Desika published the Srutaprakasika.
Malik Kafur’s raid of South India (14th century)
The Muslim army lead by Malik Kafur, a sex slave turned general of Allauddin Khilji attacked the beautiful temples of Hoysalas in the 14th century. The temple of Belur was protected and saved as soon as the attack started, so it didn’t incur too much of damage. However, Halebid was destroyed to a great extent and is in a pretty dilapidated state.[r0][r1]
In 1311, Malik Kafur entered the Srirangam temple, massacred the Brahmin priests of the temple who resisted the invasion for three days, plundered the temple treasury and the storehouse and desecrated and destroyed numerous religious icons.[r1][r2]
In the Mughal empire
The Mughal Empire was marked by periods of tolerance of non-Muslims, such as Hindus and Sikhs, as well as periods of violent oppression and persecution of those people.[r] The reign of Aurangzeb was particularly brutal. No aspect of Aurangzeb’s reign is more cited – or more controversial – than the numerous desecrations and even the destruction of Hindu temples.[r] Aurangzeb banned Diwali, placed a jizya (tax) on non-Muslims and martyred the ninth Sikh guru Tegh Bahadur.[r]
During his reign, tens of thousands of temples were desecrated: their facades and interiors were defaced and their murtis (divine images) looted.[r] In many cases, temples were destroyed entirely; in numerous instances mosques were built on their foundations, sometimes using the same stones. Among the temples Aurangzeb destroyed were two that are most sacred to Hindus, in Varanasiand Mathura.[r] In both cases, he had large mosques built on the sites.[r]
The Kesava Deo temple in Mathura, marked the place that Hindus believe was the birth place of Shri Krishna.[r] In 1661 Aurangzeb ordered the demolition of the temple, and constructed the Katra Masjid mosque. Traces of the ancient Hindu temple can be seen from the back of the mosque. Aurangzeb also destroyed what was the most famous temple in Varanasi- the Vishwanath Temple.[r] The temple had changed its location over the years, but in 1585 Akbar had authorized its location at Gyan Vapi. Aurangzeb ordered its demolition in 1669 and constructed a mosque on the site, whose minarets stand 71 metres above the Ganges. Traces of the old temple can be seen behind the mosque. Centuries later, emotional debate about these wanton acts of cultural desecration continues.Aurangzeb also destroyed the Somnath temple in 1706.[r]
Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan
Historian Hayavadana C. Rao wrote about Tippu in his encyclopaedic work on the History of Mysore. He asserted that Tippu’s “religious fanaticism and the excesses committed in the name of religion, both in Mysore and in the provinces, stand condemned for all time. His bigotry, indeed, was so great that it precluded all ideas of toleration”. He further asserts that the acts of Tippu that were constructive towards Hindus were largely political and ostentatious rather than an indication of genuine tolerance.[r]
Hindu groups revile Tipu Sultan as a bigot who massacred Hindus.[r] He was known to carry out forced conversions of Hindus and Christians.[r]. According to Ramchandra Rao “Punganuri” Tipu converted 500 Hindus inKodagu (Coorg).[r]
Though after the first Anglo-Mysore War his attitude change and to get support of his Hindu subjects in the face of the British power.
He corresponded with the Sringeri Shankaracharya – expressing grief and indignation at a raid by Maratha horsemen, which killed many and plundered the monastery of its valuable possessions[r] He patronized the Melkote temple, for which he issued a Kannada decree that the Shrivaishnava invocatory verses there should be recited in the traditional form. The temple at Melkote still has gold and silver vessels with inscriptions indicating that they were presented by the Sultan. Tipu Sultan also presented four silver cups to the Lakshmikanta Temple at Kalale.[r] There appears to be some evidence that he presented the Ranganatha temple at Srirangapatana with seven silver cups and a silver camphor burner.[r]
Some historians have argued that these acts happened after the Third Mysore war, where he had to negotiate on the terms of surrender. They claim that these acts were motivated by a political desire to get the support of his Hindu subjects.
Aurangzeb, Mughal Emperor (1658–1707)
Aurangzeb cherished the ambition of converting India into a land of Islam and his reign was particularly brutal. Aurangzeb banned Hindu festival of Diwali, placed a jizya (tax) on non-Muslims and killed the ninth Sikh guru Tegh Bahadur. The Mughal Empire was marked by periods of tolerance of non-Muslims, such as Hindus and Sikhs, as well as periods of violent oppression and persecution of those people.[r] The reign of Aurangzeb was particularly brutal. Aurangzeb destroyed a number of temples with figures varying from 80 to 60,000.[r] Indian historian Harbans Mukhia wrote that “In the end, as recently recorded in Richard Eaton’s careful tabulation, some 80 temples were demolished between 1192 and 1760 (15 in Aurangzeb’s reign) and he compares this figure with the claim of 60,000 demolitions, advanced rather nonchalantly by ‘Hindu nationalist’ propagandists,’ although even in that camp professional historians are slightly more moderate.”[r] Some temples were destroyed entirely; in other cases mosques were built on their foundations, sometimes using the same stones. Among the temples Aurangzeb destroyed were two that are most sacred to Hindus, in Varanasi and Mathura.[r] In both cases, he had large mosques built on the sites.[r]
The Kesava Deo temple in Mathura, marked the place that Hindus believe was the birthplace of Shri Krishna.[r] In 1661 Aurangzeb ordered the demolition of the temple, and constructed the Katra Masjid mosque. Traces of the ancient Hindu temple can be seen from the back of the mosque. Aurangzeb also destroyed what was the most famous temple in Varanasi– the Vishwanath Temple.[r] The temple had changed its location over the years, but in 1585 Akbar had authorized its location at Gyan Vapi. Aurangzeb ordered its demolition in 1669 and constructed a mosque on the site, whose minarets stand 71 metres above the Ganges. Traces of the old temple can be seen behind the mosque. Centuries later, emotional debate about these wanton acts of cultural desecration continues.Aurangzeb also destroyed the Somnath temple in 1706.[r]
Ram Puniyani states that Aurangzeb was not always fanatically anti-Hindu, and kept changing his policies depending on the needs of the situation. He banned the construction of new temples, but permitted the repair and maintenance of existing temples. He also made generous donations of jagirs to several temples to win the sympathies of his Hindu subjects. There are several firmans (orders) in his name, supporting temples and gurudwaras, including Mahakaleshwar temple of Ujjain, Balaji temple of Chitrakoot, Umananda Temple(Guwahati) and the Shatrunjaya Jain temples.[r]
During the era of Nizam state of Hyderabad
Hindus were severely repressed under the autocratic dictatorial rule of the Nizam nawabs in Hyderabad state. The Hindu majority were denied fundamental rights by the Nizams of Hyderabad state. Hindus were called gaddaar (traitor) by Muslims in the Nizam state of Hyderabad.[r] Many Hindus were murdered, looted and thrown to jail. Construction of temples were declared illegal and Hindu scriptures like Bhagavad Gita, Ramayanawere banned.[r]
Hindus were treated as second class citizens within Hyderabad state and they were severely discriminated against, despite the vast majority of the population being Hindu. The 1941 census estimated the population of Hyderabad to be 16.34 million. Over 85% of the populace were Hindus with Muslims accounting for about 12%. Hyderabad was also a multi-lingual state consisting of peoples speaking Telugu (48.2%), Marathi (26.4%), Kannada (12.3%) and Urdu (10.3%). Nonetheless, the number of Hindus in government positions was disproportionately small. Of 1765 officers, 1268 were Muslims, 421 were Hindus, and 121 were “Others” (presumably British Christians, Parsis and Sikhs). Of the officials drawing pay between Rs.600–1200 pm, 59 were Muslims, 38 were “Others”, and a mere 5 were Hindus. The Nizam and his nobles, who were mostly Muslims, owned 40% of the total land in the kingdom.[r]
In 1947; Nizam, the ruler of Hyderabad refused to merge his kingdom with India. For the independence of the Islamic state of Hyderabadand to resist Indian integration, All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen, the then dominating political party persecuted Hindus and their 1,50,000 cadre strong militant wing named Razakars killed a number of Hindus under the leadership of Qasim Rizwi.[r]
Moplah Rebellion (1921)
Moplah Rebellion was an Anti Hindu rebellion conducted by the Muslim Mappila community (Moplah is a British spelling) of Kerala in 1921. Inspired by the Khilafat movement and the Karachi resolution; Moplahs murdered, pillaged, and forcibly converted thousands of Hindus.[r1][r2] 100,000 Hindus[r] were driven away from their homes forcing to leave their property behind, which were later took over by Mappilas. This greatly changed the demographics of the area, being the major cause behind today’s Malappuram district being a Muslim majority district in Kerala.[r3]
Annie Besant wrote about the riots: “They Moplahs murdered and plundered abundantly, and killed or drove away all Hindus who would not apostatize. Somewhere about a lakh (100,000) of people were driven from their homes with nothing but their clothes they had on, stripped of everything. Malabar has taught us what Islamic rule still means, and we do not want to see another specimen of the Khilafat Raj in India.”[r]
The Hindu minority in Kashmir has also been historically persecuted by Muslim rulers.[r] While Hindus and Muslims lived in harmony for certain periods of time, several Muslim rulers of Kashmir were intolerant of other religions. Sultãn Sikandar Butshikan of Kashmir (AD 1389–1413) is often considered the worst of these. Historians have recorded many of his atrocities. The Tarikh-i-Firishta records that Sikandar persecuted the Hindus and issued orders proscribing the residency of any other than Muslims in Kashmir. He also ordered the breaking of all “golden and silver images”. The Tarikh-i-Firishta further states: “Many of the Brahmins, rather than abandon their religion or their country, poisoned themselves; some emigrated from their native homes, while a few escaped the evil of banishment by becoming Mahomedans. After the emigration of the Bramins, Sikundur ordered all the temples in Kashmeer to be thrown down. Having broken all the images in Kashmeer, (Sikandar) acquired the title of ‘Destroyer of Idols’”.[r] The 2000 Amarnath pilgrimage massacre was another incident where 30 Hindu pilgrims were killed en route to Amarnath temple.[r] Even now these continue by majority Muslim community there on indigenous Hindus.[r]
The great historian Will Durant clearly states that the “Mohammedan conquest of India is probably the bloodiest story in history.”2 He wrote these words prior to World War II, but even so, compared with the Muslim conquest of Christian and Jewish lands, the Muslim conquest of India was extremely brutal.
India was and still is largely Hindu, with some pockets of Buddhist and other assorted faiths, but under the teachings of Muhammad they were all idol worshippers. Unlike Christians, Jews and certain other groups, Hindus were not classified as “People of the Book”, and were not given the option to pay a protection tax called the jizya to be able to retain their faith.
People of the Book were given three choices: convert, pay the protection tax, or die. It was after paying this tax they moved from the House of War,Dar al-Harb, to the House of Peace, Dar al-Islam.Groups classified as idolaters were only given two choices: convert or die. Later on the kuffar (unbelievers) in India were given the same status as people of the book, but this only happened after their Muslim masters saw how lucrative it would be to tax these idolaters. Still, the Islamic conquests of India brought onto the Indians centuries of cruelty, even after they were granted dhimmi status.
In any case, military contact by the “peaceful” armies of Islam in pagan India resulted in conversion, destruction of property such as temples, outright slaughter, enslavement, and pillaging. These brutal attacks continued for the next 500 years, bringing war upon the kuffar from Afghanistan to southern India. The invasions caused the destruction of many temples throughout the lands of India, and in some cases eliminated Hindu and Buddhist culture from certain regions forever. Other groups such as the Jains faced the same threat from Islam.
The main purpose of the invasion of India was the spread of Islam into the region. The Qur’an clearly says, “fight against them (the Mushriks) until idolatry is no more and Allah’s religion reins supreme” The one thing these Muslims knew about the inhabitants of India was they were idol-worshippers and infidels, which led to only one conclusion: conquest. This is repeated in Sura 69 “Lay hold of him and bind him. Burn him in the fire of Hell,” and again “When you meet the unbelievers in the battlefield strike off their heads and when you have laid them low, bind your captives firmly.”
The invading Muslims knew about their duty concerning such idol worshippers with the instructions coming from three sources: the Qur’an, the Hadith, and the personal exploits of Muhammad himself. The supreme Qur’an taught them to fight the kuffar or unbeliever with all their strength until they were subdued. It was their pious duty to convert them and destroy their idols, shrines and temples.
“The Jihad or Holy War is a multi-dimensional concept. It means fighting for the sake of Allah, for the cause of Islam, for converting people to the true faith.”
In the year 997 AD a Turkish chieftain by the name of Mahmud in eastern Afghanistan cast an envious eye at the wealth across the Indian frontier, because his throne was new and his kingdom was poor. Mahmud knew the kuffar in India were extremely wealthy and he wanted their riches for himself. Using a zeal against idolatry as a pretext for war, he swept across their frontiers with a force inspired by a pious lust for booty. He slaughtered the unprepared Hindus at Bhimnagar, pillaged their cities, and destroyed their temples, carrying away the accumulated treasures of centuries. He returned to his capital in Afghanistan with so much loot that he astonished foreign ambassadors by displaying “jewels and unbored pearls and rubies shining like sparks or like wine congealed with ice, and emeralds like fresh sprigs of myrtle and diamonds in size and weight like pomegranates.”2 Each winter he returned and invaded India to fill his treasure chests and allow his men to pillage and kill, only to return to his capital richer than before.
FOR EXAMPLE SEE : Sree Padmanabhaswamy temple ( the It is estimated that the value of the monumental items is close to 1.2 lakh crore or 1.2 trillion (US$19 billion), making it the richest temple in the world.)
According to GUINNESS WORLD RECORDS: In 2011 the Sree Padmanabha Swami Temple in Thiruvananthapuram, India, overtook the Tirupati Temple (also India) to become the world’s richest Hindu temple after the chance discovery of secret cellars at the temple uncovered a vast treasure of gold, silver and precious jewels believed to be worth at least £12 billion (then approx. $18 billion).
OR SIMPLY GOOGLE IT TO FIND MORE RICHEST HINDU TEMPLES IN THE WORLD EARNING 400 TO 500 CRORES A YEAR IN DONATIONS AND ADDITIONAL GOLD, SILVER AND DIAMOND JEWELS.
ANYWAYS LETS GO FURTHER
It is still clear that the main objective of radical Muslims in destroying Hindu temples was laid out by the examples of their Prophet Muhammad. For pious Muslim these temples are not only full of idols or false gods, but are an affront to the Unity of God — after all, there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his messenger.
- Savages at a very low level of civilization and no culture worth the name, from Arabia and west Asia, began entering India from the early century onwards. Islamic invaders demolished countless Hindu temples, shattered uncountable sculpture and idols, plundered innumerable palaces and forts of Hindu kings, killed vast numbers of Hindu men and carried off Hindu women. This story, the educated-and a lot of even the illiterate Indians-know very well. History books tell it in remarkable detail. Muslim rulers destroyed the historical evolution of the earth’s most mentally advanced civilization, the most richly imaginative culture, and the most vigorously creative society.
It is clear that India at the time when Muslim invaders turned towards it (8 to 11th century) was the earth’s richest region for its wealth in precious and semi-precious stones, gold and silver, religion and culture, and its fine arts and letters. Tenth century Hindustan was also too far advanced than its contemporaries in the East and the West for its achievements in the realms of speculative philosophy and scientific theorizing, mathematics and knowledge of nature’s workings. Hindus of the early medieval period were unquestionably superior in more things than the Chinese, the Persians (including the Sassanians), the Romans and the Byzantines of the immediate proceeding centuries. The followers of Siva and Vishnu on this subcontinent had created for themselves a society more mentally evolved-joyous and prosperous too-than had been realized by the Jews, Christians, and Muslim monotheists of the time. Medieval India, until the Islamic invaders destroyed it, was history’s most richly imaginative culture and one of the five most advanced civilizations of all times.
In 1193, the Nalanda University complex was destroyed by Afghan Khilji–Ghilzai Muslims under Bakhtiyar Khalji; this event is seen as the final milestone in the decline of Buddhism in India. He also burned Nalanda’s a major Buddhist library and Vikramshila University, as well as numerous Bhuddhist monasteries in India. When the Tibetan translator, Chag Lotsawa Dharmasvamin (Chag Lo-tsa-ba, 1197–1264), visited northern India in 1235, Nalanda was damaged, looted, and largely deserted, but still standing and functioning with seventy students. Mahabodhi, Sompura, Vajrasan and other important monasteries were found to be untouched. The Ghuri ravages only afflicted those monasteries that lay in the direct of their advance and were fortified in the manner of defensive forts.
By the end of the 12th century, following the Muslim conquest of the Buddhist stronghold in Bihar, Buddhism having already declined in the south declined in the North as well as survivors retreated to Nepal, Sikkim and Tibet or escaped to the South of the sub-continent.
The city flourished between the 14th century and 16th century, during the height of the Vijayanagar Empire. During this time, it was often in conflict with the kingdoms which rose in the Northern Deccan, and which are often collectively termed the Deccan Sultanates. The Vijaynagar Empire successfully resisted Muslim invasions for centuries. But in 1565, the empire’s armies suffered a massive and catastrophic defeat at by an alliance of the Sultanates, and the capital was taken. The victorious armies then razed, depopulated and destroyed the city over several months. The empire continued in slow decline, but the original capital was not reoccupied or rebuilt.
The first temple of Somnath existed before the beginning of the Christian era.
The second temple, built by the Maitraka kings of Vallabhi in Gujarat, replaced the first one on the same site around 649. In 725 Junayad, the Arab governor of Sind, sent his armies to destroy the second temple.
The Pratihara king Nagabhata II constructed the third temple in 815, a large structure of red sandstone. Mahmud of Ghazni attacked this temple in 1026, looted its gems and precious stones, massacred the worshippers and burned it. It was then that the famous Shivalinga of the temple was entirely destroyed.
The fourth temple was built by the Paramara King Bhoj of Malwa and the Solankiking Bhimdev I of Gujarat (Anhilwara) between 1026 and 1042. The temple was razed in 1297 when the Sultanate of Delhi conquered Gujarat, and again in 1394. Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb destroyed the temple again in 1706.
The religion of Islam stormed into India in a similar manner as it did in the Arabian countries. Powerful regimes succumbed to the religion at a remarkably fast pace as evidenced by the fact that within a century after its inception, it had spread to the entire Middle East and Northern Africa. But in India, Islam had a more difficult time to insinuate into the Hindu and Buddhist societies. Even then, ‘Islamization’ of India took several centuries and was never complete. The barbaric nature of the sultanates rule and the invasion of Mongols may have had a negative effect on the Hindu practitioners. The earlier Mughals had breeched the division somewhat, but Aurangzeb in his zeal to turn India into an Islamic nation alienated all other religions. From then onward ‘moderate Muslim rule’ was an oxymoron. It is also apparent that the Hindus revered their idols much more than the Muslim conquerors estimated. A sweep of India never occurred and India remained predominantly Hindu, with only about twenty percent of its population as Muslims, at any given time in its history.
AFTER A LOT OF STRUGGLE WITH THE MUGHAL INVADERS, INDIA AGAIN SUFFERED AND GONE UNDER THE CONTROL OF BRITISH.
The Goa Inquisition, was established in 1560 by Portuguese missionaries. Aimed primarily at New Christians who were thought to have returned to their original Hindu or Islamic faith, it is recorded to have executed 57 apostates until its abolition in 1774.[r]The British East India Company engaged in a covert and well-financed campaign ofevangelical conversions in the 19th century. While officially discouraging conversions, officers of the Company routinely converted Sepoys to Christianity, often by force. This was one of the factors that led to the First Indian War of Independence.[r]
AFTER MUCH INDIA FINALLY GOT INDEPENDENCE IN 15 AUG 1947.
THERE, ISLAM STRIKES AGAIN WITH A DEMAND OF PARTITION OF INDIA TO CREATE A SEPARATE COUNTRY FOR THE MUSLIMS.
Partition of India
Before the partition, there was large scale violence against Hindus during the first Partition of Bengal. Thousands of Hindus were killed in Muslim dominated portions of Bengal (which geographically also included the present day states of Bihar and Orrisa). Close after that arrived Khilafat movement spear headed by Ali brothers in which Hindus of central India and the province of Bombay (which included the present day Gujrat and Maharashtra in it) were killed, maimed and massacred. The Moplaah rebellion in Kerala got encouragement due to Gandhi ji’s support to Khilafat movement. Again, the victims in the so called rebellion against the British government’s inaction against Mustafa Kamal in far away Turkey were Hindu women, men and children who were raped, killed and orphaned in thousands.
Hindus, like Muslims, Sikhs, and members of other religious groups, experienced severe dislocation and violence during the massive population exchanges associated with the partition of India, as members of various communities moved to what they hoped was the relative safety of an area where they would be a religious majority. Hindus were among the between 200,000 and a million who died during the rioting and other violence associated with the partition.[r]
Greater India once included Pakistan and Afghanistan. Ashoka and Kanishka ruled Afghanistan and it was an integral part of India until it was lost to Islam. Afghanistan had been lost to India for many centuries until Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, united it with India. Lost to Shah of Persia by Humayun, Akbar had re established the sovereignty in Afghanistan by conquering both Kabul valley and Kandahar. Then Jahangir and Shah Jahan lost Kandahar forever to the Shah of Iran, never to be regained though Kabul remained in Mughal hands until the reign of Aurangzeb. Even the British in the nineteenth century were unable to re-conquer it. India lost further territory when Pakistan and Bangladesh were lost to India in the modern era, in the middle of twentieth century.
The partition of India (Hindi: हिन्दुस्तान का बटवारा, Urdu: تقسیم ہند, Bengali: ভারত বিভাগ) was the partition of British India on the basis of religious demographics. This led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan (that later split into the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People’s Republic of Bangladesh) and the Union of India (later Republic of India). The Indian Independence Act 1947 had decided 15 August 1947 as the appointed date for the partition. However, Pakistan came into existence a day earlier, on 14 August.
The partition included the geographical division of the Bengal province into East Bengal, which became part of the Dominion of Pakistan (from 1956, East Pakistan). West Bengal became part of India, and a similar partition of the Punjab province became West Punjab (later the Pakistani Punjab and Islamabad Capital Territory) and East Punjab (later the Indian Punjab, as well as Haryana and Himachal Pradesh). The partition agreement also included the division of Indian government assets, including the Indian Civil Service, the Indian Army, the Royal Indian Navy, the Indian railways and the central treasury, and other administrative services.
The two self-governing countries of India and Pakistan legally came into existence at the stroke of midnight on 14–15 August 1947. The ceremonies for the transfer of power were held a day earlier in Karachi, at the time the capital of the new state of Pakistan, so that the last British Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten of Burma, could attend both the ceremony in Karachi and the ceremony in Delhi. Thus, Pakistan’s Independence Day is celebrated on 14 August and India’s on 15 August.
The Partition of British India was based on the prevailing religions, broadly as shown in this map of 1909
The modern state of Pakistan was established on 14 August 1947 (27 Ramadan 1366 in the Islamic Calendar) The partition of the Punjab and Bengal provinces led to communal riots across India and Pakistan; millions of Muslims moved to Pakistan and millions of Hindus and Sikhs moved to India.[r] Dispute over Jammu and Kashmir led to the First Kashmir War.[r2][r3]
Late nineteenth and early twentieth century
The All India Muslim League (AIML) had been formed in Dhaka in 1906 by Muslims who were suspicious of the Hindu-majority Indian National Congress. They complained that Muslim members did not have the same rights as Hindu members. A number of different scenarios were proposed at various times. Among the first to make the demand for a separate state was the writer and philosopher Allama Iqbal, who, in his presidential address to the 1930 convention of the Muslim League, proposed a separate nation for Muslims was essential in an otherwise Hindu-dominated Indian subcontinent. According to Iqbal, such a separation was imminent in a near future, according to his vision.
The Sindh Assembly passed a resolution making its separate nation a demand in 1935. Iqbal, Jouhar and others worked hard to draft a resolution, working with Mohammad Ali Jinnah, who had until then worked for Hindu-Muslim unity and who now was to lead the movement for this new nation. By 1930, Jinnah had begun to despair at the fate of minority communities in a united India and had begun to argue that mainstream parties such as the Congress, of which he was once a member, were insensitive to Muslim interests.
The 1932 Communal Award which seemed to threaten the position of Muslims in Hindu-majority provinces catalyzed the resurgence of the Muslim League, with Jinnah as its leader. However, the League did not do well in the 1937 provincial elections, demonstrating the hold of the conservative and local forces at the time.
Most of the Congress leaders were secularists and resolutely opposed the division of India on the lines of religion. Mohandas Gandhi and Allama Mashriqi believed that Hindus and Muslims could and should live in amity. Gandhi opposed the partition, saying, “My whole soul rebels against the idea that Hinduism and Islam represent two antagonistic cultures and doctrines. To assent to such a doctrine is for me a denial of God.”
For years, Gandhi and his adherents struggled to keep Muslims in the Congress Party (a major exit of many Muslim activists began in the 1930s), and in the process enraged both Hindu Nationalists and Indian Muslim nationalists. Gandhi was assassinated soon after Partition.
Politicians and community leaders on both sides whipped up mutual suspicion and fear, culminating in dreadful events such as the riots during the Muslim League’s Direct Action Day of August 1946 in Kolkata (then “Calcutta”), in which more than 5,000 people were killed and many more injured. As public order broke down all across northern India and Bengal, the pressure increased to seek a political partition of territories as a way to avoid a full-scale civil war.
Some historians believe Jinnah intended to use the threat of partition as a bargaining chip in order to gain more independence for the Muslim dominated provinces in the west from the Hindu-dominated center.[r]
The actual division of British India between the two new dominions was accomplished according to what has come to be known as the 3 June Plan or Mountbatten Plan. It was announced at a press conference by Mountbatten on 3 June 1947, when the date of independence was also announced – 15 August 1947.
Within British India, the border between India and Pakistan (the Radcliffe Line) was determined by a British Government-commissioned report prepared under the chairmanship of a London barrister, Sir Cyril Radcliffe. Pakistan came into being with two non-contiguous enclaves, East Pakistan (today Bangladesh) and West Pakistan, separated geographically by India. India was formed out of the majority Hindu regions of British India, and Pakistan from the majority Muslim areas.
Following its creation as a new country in August 1947, Pakistan applied for membership of the United Nations and was accepted by the General Assembly on 30 September 1947. The Union of India continued to have the existing seat as India had been a founding member of the United Nations since 1945.[r]
The newly formed governments were completely unequipped to deal with migrations of such staggering magnitude, and massive violence and slaughter occurred on both sides of the border. Estimates of the number of deaths range around roughly 500,000, with low estimates at 200,000 and high estimates at 1,000,000.[r]
The Indian state of East Punjab was created in 1947, when the Partition of India split the former British province of Punjab between India and Pakistan. The mostly Muslim western part of the province became Pakistan’s Punjab province; the mostly Sikh and Hindu eastern part became India’s East Punjab state. Many Hindus and Sikhs lived in the west, and many Muslims lived in the east, and the fears of all such minorities were so great that the partition saw many people displaced and much inter-communal violence.
Lahore and Amritsar were at the centre of the problem, the Boundary Commission was not sure where to place them – to make them part of India or Pakistan. The Commission decided to give Lahore to Pakistan, whilst Amritsar became part of India. Some areas in west Punjab, including Lahore, Rawalpindi, Multan, and Gujrat, had a large Sikh and Hindu population, and many of the residents were attacked or killed. On the other side, in East Punjab, cities such as Amritsar, Ludhiana, Gurdaspur, and Jalandhar had a majority Muslim population, of which thousands were killed or emigrated.
The province of Bengal was divided into the two separate entities of West Bengal belonging to India, and East Bengal belonging to Pakistan. East Bengal was renamed East Pakistan in 1955, and later became the independent nation of Bangladesh after the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971.
While the Muslim majority districts of Murshidabad and Malda were given to India, the Hindu majority district of Khulna and the majority Buddhist, but sparsely populated Chittagong Hill Tracts was given to Pakistan by the award.
Hindu Sindhis were expected to stay in Sindh following Partition, as there were good relations between Hindu and Muslim Sindhis. At the time of Partition there were 1,400,000 Hindu Sindhis, though most were concentrated in cities such as Hyderabad, Karachi,Shikarpur, and Sukkur. However, because of an uncertain future in a Muslim country, a sense of better opportunities in India, and most of all a sudden influx of Muslim refugees from Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajputana (Rajasthan) and other parts of India, many Sindhi Hindus decided to leave for India.
An old Sikh man carrying his wife. Over 10 million people were uprooted from their homeland and travelled on foot, bullock carts and trains to their promised new home.
Photo of a railway station in Punjab. Many people abandoned their fixed assets and crossed newly formed borders.
Sikhism emerged in the Punjab during the Mughal period. Conflict between early Sikhs and the Muslim power center at Delhi reached an early high point in 1606 when Guru Arjan Dev, the fifth guru of the Sikhs, was tortured and killed by Jahangir, the Mughal Emperor.
1675 Teg Bahadur was executed by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb for helping to protect Hindus, after a delegation of Kashmiri Pandits came to him for help when the Emperor condemned them to death for failing to convert to Islam.[r] At this point Aurangzeb had instituted forceful conversions for which they would charge citizens with various accusations granting them to have charges and execution waved off if they converted this led to a high increase of violence between the Sikhs and Hindus as well as rebellions of Aurangzeb‘s empire. This is an early example which illustrates how the Hindu-Muslim conflict and the Muslim-Sikh conflicts are connected.
Muslim-Christian conflict in India
In spite of the fact that there have been relatively fewer conflicts between Muslims and Christians in India in comparison to those between Muslims and Hindus, or Muslims and Sikhs, the relationship between Muslims and Christians have also been occasionally turbulent. With the advent of European colonialism in India throughout the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, Christians were systematically persecuted in a few Muslim ruled kingdoms in India.
- Anti-Christian persecution by Tipu Sultan in the 17th century
The British officer James Scurry, who was detained a prisoner for 10 years by Tipu Sultan along with the Mangalorean Catholics
According to James Scurry, a British officer, who was held captive along with Mangalorean Catholics, 30,000 of them were forcibly converted to Islam. The young women and girls were forcibly made wives of the Muslims living there.[r] The young men who offered resistance were disfigured by cutting their noses, upper lips, and ears.[r] According to Mr. Silva of Gangolim, a survivor of the captivity, if a person who had escaped from Seringapatam was found, the punishment under the orders of Tipu was the cutting off of the ears, nose, the feet and one hand.[r]
The Archbishop of Goa wrote in 1800, “It is notoriously known in all Asia and all other parts of the globe of the oppression and sufferings experienced by the Christians in the Dominion of the King of Kanara, during the usurpation of that country by Tipu Sultan from an implacable hatred he had against them who professed Christianity.”[r]
In 1989 there was a social boycott by the Buddhists of the Muslims of Leh district. The boycott remained in force till 1992. Relations between the Buddhists and Muslims in Leh improved after the lifting of the boycott, although suspicions remained.[r]
Religious violence in India includes acts of violence by followers of one religious group against followers and institutions of another religious group, often in the form of rioting.[r] Religious violence in India, especially in recent times, has generally involved Hindus and Muslims, although incidents of violence have also involved Christians, Jews, and Sikhs with muslims.
Despite the secular and religiously tolerant constitution of India, broad religious representation in various aspects of society including the government, the active role played by autonomous bodies such as National Human Rights Commission of India and National Commission for Minorities, and the ground-level work being out by Non-governmental organizations, sporadic and sometimes serious acts of religious violence tend to occur as the root causes of religious violence often run deep in history, religious activities, and politics of India.[r2][r3][r4][r5]
Ancient India has no history of large scale religious violence comparing today.
A railway station in Punjab during large-scale migration that followed partition of India along religious lines.
In 1970, Pakistan held its first democratic elections since independence, that were meant to mark a transition from military rule to democracy, but after the East Pakistani Awami League won, Yahya Khan and the ruling elite in West Pakistan refused to hand over power.[r2][r3] There was civil unrest in the East, and the Pakistan Army launched a military operation on 25 March 1971, aiming to regain control of the province.[r2][r3] The genocide carried out during this operation led to a declaration of independence and to the waging of a war of liberation by the Bengali Mukti Bahini forces in East Pakistan, with support from India.[r2][r3] However, in West Pakistan the conflict was described as a Civil War as opposed to War of Liberation.[r]
Independent estimates of civilian deaths during this period range from 300,000 to 3 million.[r] Attacks on Indian military bases by the Pakistan Air Force in December 1971 sparked the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, which ended with the formal secession of East Pakistan as the independent state of Bangladesh.[r]
India and Pakistan
Since Partition, with the riots and killings between the two religious communities, India and Pakistan have struggled to maintain normal relations. One of the biggest debates occurs over the disputed region of Kashmir, over which there have been three wars, and the reasons for the wars have related only to the confusion over partition. There have been four Indo-Pakistani wars:
- Indo-Pakistani War of 1947: Pakistani-backed tribals (and later its army) invaded the princely state of Kashmir that acceded to India as per the scheme of accession provided in Indian Independence Act 1947. A stalemate followed since 1949.
- Indo-Pakistani War of 1965: Pakistani-backed guerrillas invaded Jammu & Kashmir state of India. India is generally believed to have had the upper hand when a ceasefire was called. Whereas Pakistan believed its air-superiority over army and navy against India in the war to be key achievement and future success if war continued.[r]
- Indo-Pakistani War of 1971: After India announced support for the Bengalis in East Pakistan, Pakistan launched air strikes against India. India eventually liberated East Pakistan and helped in the creation of Bangladesh.
- 1999 Kargil Conflict: Pakistani army troops invaded high peaks in Kargil sector in Jammu & Kashmir during the winter when high mountain posts were unoccupied. India recaptured all territory lost.[r]
Constitutionally India is a secular state, [r] but large-scale violence has periodically occurred in India since independence. In recent decades, communal tensions and religion-based politics have become more prominent.
Ethnic cleansing of Kashmiri Hindus
In the Kashmir region, approximately 300 Kashmiri Pandits were killed between September 1989 to 1990 in various incidents.[r] In early 1990, local Urdu newspapers Aftab and Al Safa called upon Kashmiris to wage jihad against India and ordered the expulsion of all Hindus choosing to remain in Kashmir.[r] In the following days masked men ran in the streets with AK-47 shooting to kill Hindus who would not leave.[r] Notices were placed on the houses of all Hindus, telling them to leave within 24 hours or die.[r]
Since March 1990, estimates of between 300,000 to 500,000 pandits have migrated outside Kashmir[r] due to persecution by Islamic fundamentalists in the largest case of ethnic cleansing since the partition of India.[r] The proportion of Kashmiri Pandits in the Kashmir valley has declined from about 15% in 1947 to, by some estimates, less than 0.1% since the insurgency in Kashmir took on a religious and sectarian flavor.[r]
Many Kashmiri Pandits have been killed by Islamist militants in incidents such as the Wandhama massacre and the 2000 Amarnath pilgrimage massacre.[r1][r2][r3][r4][r5] The incidents of massacring and forced eviction have been termed ethnic cleansing by some observers.[r]
The history of modern India has many incidents of communal violence. Tensions between Hindu and Muslim started coming to light a few years before the independence of the Indian-sub continent. This thought contrasts with the more widely held Two Nation Theory as the main reason. These riots were supposedly provoked by colonizers and politicians for personal gains and vested interests. India have risen and has led to several major incidences of religious violence such as Hashimpura massacre (1987), Bombay riots, 1993 Bombay bombings, and 2002 Gujarat violence.
On 6 December 1992, members of the Vishva Hindu Parishad and the Bajrang Dal destroyed the 430-year-old Babri Mosque in Ayodhya,[r] it was claimed by the Hindus that the mosque was built over the birthplace of the ancient deity Rama. This action caused humiliation to the Muslim community. The resulting religious riots caused at least 1200 deaths.[r1][r2] Since then the Government of India has blocked off or heavily increased security at these disputed sites while encouraging attempts to resolve these disputes through court cases and negotiations.[r]
In the aftermatch of the destruction of the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya by Hindu nationalists on 6 December 1992, riots took place between Hindus and Muslims in the city of Mumbai. The Godhra train burning incident in which Hindus were burned alive allegedly by Muslims by closing door of train, led to the 2002 Gujarat riots in which mostly Muslims were killed in an act of retaliation.
There have been a number of more recent attacks on Hindu temples and Hindus by Muslim militants. Prominent among them are the 1998 Chamba massacre, the 2002 fidayeen attacks on Raghunath temple, the 2002 Akshardham Temple attack allegedly perpetrated by Islamic terrorist outfit Lashkar-e-Toiba[r] and the 2006 Varanasi bombings (supposedly perpetrated by Lashkar-e-Toiba), resulting in many deaths and injuries. Recent attacks on Hindus by Muslim mobs include Marad massacre, Godhra train burning etc.
In August 2000, Swami Shanti Kali, a popular Hindu priest, was shot to death inside his ashram in the Indian state of Tripura by NLFT.
In September 2008, Swami Laxmanananda, a popular regional Hindu Guru was murdered along with four of his disciples by unknown assailants (though a Maoist organization later claimed responsibility for that.
Lesser incidents of religious violence happen in many towns and villages in India. In October 2005, five people were killed in Mau in Uttar Pradesh during Hindu-Muslim rioting, which was triggered by the proposed celebration of a Hindu festival.[r]
On 2 May 2003, eight Hindus were killed by a Muslim mob, in what is believed to be a sequel to the earlier incident.[r1][r2] One of the attackers, Mohammed Ashker was killed during the chaos. The National Development Front (NDF), a right-wing militant Islamist organization, was suspected as the perpetrator of the Marad Massacre.[r]
In the 2010 Deganga riots after hundreds of Hindu business establishments and residences were looted, destroyed and burnt, dozens of Hindus were severely injured and several Hindu temples desecrated and vandalized by the Islamist mobs led by Trinamul Congress MP Haji Nurul Islam.[r] Three years later, during the 2013 Canning riots, several hundred Hindu businesses were targeted and destroyed by Islamist mobs in the Indian state of West Bengal.[r1][r2] Several Hindu temples desecrated and vandalized by the mobs. The Indian media puts on a blindfold to such incidents, it makes either very less or no reporting of incident. Very few media organisation covered the 2013 riots of West Bengal,India.
The period of insurgency in Punjab around Operation Blue Star saw clashes of the Sikh militants with the police, as well as with the Hindu-Nirankari groups resulting in many Hindu deaths. In 1987, 32 Hindus were pulled out of a bus and shot, near Lalru in Punjab by Sikh militants.[r]
Kerala is a Hindu majority state but with the most slim majority in India of 56%.[r] Kerala has witnessed many riots and rebellions against Hindus by Muslims throughout it history and more so in independent India; notably the Marad Massacre. Many Muslims extremist organizations allegedly supported Love Jihad where Muslim boys targeted Hindu and Christian young girls, to convert them to Islam by feigning love.[r]
The HAF report documents the long history of anti-Hindu atrocities[r] in Bangladesh,[r] a topic that many Indians and Indian governments over the years have preferred not to acknowledge. Such atrocities, including targeted attacks[r] against temples, open theft of Hindu property, and rape of young Hindu women and enticements to convert to Islam, have increased sharply in recent years after the Jamat-e-Islami joined the coalition government led by the Bangladesh National Party.[r1][r2]
Bangladesh has had a troublesome history of persecution of Hindus as well. A US-based human rights organisation, Refugees International, has claimed that religious minorities, especially Hindus, still face discrimination in Bangladesh.[r] The government of Bangladesh, a nationalist party openly calls for ‘Talibanisation’ of the state.[r1][r2][r3] However, the prospect of actually “Talibanizing” the state is regarded as a remote possibility, since Bangladeshi Islamic society is generally more progressive than the extremist Taliban of Afghanistan. Political scholars conclude that while the Islamization of Bangladesh is real, the country is not on the brink of being Talibanized.[r] In 1971 at the time of the liberation of Bangladesh from East Pakistan, the Hindu population accounted for 15% of the total population. Thirty years on, it is now estimated at just 10.5%.[r] The ‘Vested Property Act’ previously named the ‘Enemy Property Act’ has seen up to 40% of Hindu land snatched away forcibly. Since this government has come into power, of all the rape crimes registered in Bangladesh, 98% have been registered by Hindu women. Hindu temples in Bangladesh have also been vandalised.[r2][r3] The United States Congressional Caucus on India has condemned these atrocities.[r]
Bangladeshi feminist Taslima Nasrin‘s 1993 novel Lajja (i personally read it & recommend it for my readers) deals with the anti-Hindu riots and anti-secular sentiment in Bangladesh in the wake of the destruction of the Babri Masjid in India. The book was banned in Bangladesh, and helped draw international attention to the situation of the Bangladeshi Hindu minority.
In October 2006, the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom published a report titled ‘Policy Focus on Bangladesh’, which said that since its last election, ‘Bangladesh has experienced growing violence by religious extremists, intensifying concerns expressed by the countries religious minorities’. The report further stated that Hindus are particularly vulnerable in a period of rising violence and extremism, whether motivated by religious, political or criminal factors, or some combination. The report noted that Hindus had multiple disadvantages against them in Bangladesh, such as perceptions of dual loyalty with respect to India and religious beliefs that are not tolerated by the politically dominant Islamic Fundamentalists of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party. Violence against Hindus has taken place “in order to encourage them to flee in order to seize their property”.The previous reports of the Hindu American Foundation were acknowledged and confirmed by this non-partisan report.[r]
On 2 November 2006, USCIRF criticized Bangladesh for its continuing persecution of minority Hindus. It also urged the Bush administration to get Dhaka to ensure protection of religious freedom and minority rights before Bangladesh’s next national elections in January 2007.[r]
On 6 February 2010, Sonargaon temple in Narayanganj district of Bangladesh was destroyed by Islamic fanatics. Five people were seriously injured during the attack.[r] Temples were also attacked and destroyed in 2011[r]
In 2013, the International Crimes Tribunal indicted several Jamaat members for war crimes against Hindus during the 1971 Bangladesh atrocities. In retaliation, violence against Hindu minorities in Bangladesh was instigated by the Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami . The violence included the looting of Hindu properties and businesses, the burning of Hindu homes, rape of Hindu women and desecration and destruction of Hindu temples.[r]
There were 8.8 million Hindus in Pakistan in 1951. Now,[when?] there are are less than 1 million Hindus left. In 1951, Hindus constituted 22% of the Pakistani population (including present-day Bangladesh);[r1][r2] Today,[when?] the Hindu minority amounts to 1.7 percent of Pakistan’s population.[r]
Pakistan Studies curriculum issues
According to the Sustainable Development Policy Institute report ‘Associated with the insistence on the Ideology of Pakistan has been an essential component of hate against India and the Hindus. For the upholders of the Ideology of Pakistan, the existence of Pakistan is defined only in relation to Hindus, and hence the Hindus have to be painted as negatively as possible’[r] A 2005 report by the National Commission for Justice and Peace a non profit organization in Pakistan, found that Pakistan Studies textbooks in Pakistan have been used to articulate the hatred that Pakistani policy-makers have attempted to inculcate towards the Hindus. ‘Vituperative animosities legitimize military and autocratic rule, nurturing a siege mentality. Pakistan Studies textbooks are an active site to represent India as a hostile neighbor’ the report stated. ‘The story of Pakistan’s past is intentionally written to be distinct from, and often in direct contrast with, interpretations of history found in India. From the government-issued textbooks, students are taught that Hindus are backward and superstitious.‘ Further the report stated ‘Textbooks reflect intentional obfuscation. Today’s students, citizens of Pakistan and its future leaders are the victims of these partial truths’.[r3][r4][r5][r6]
An editorial in Pakistan’s oldest newspaper Dawn commenting on a report in The Guardian on Pakistani Textbooks noted ‘By propagating concepts such as jihad, the inferiority of non-Muslims, India’s ingrained enmity with Pakistan, etc., the textbook board publications used by all government schools promote a mindset that is bigoted and obscurantist. Since there are more children studying in these schools than in madrassahs the damage done is greater. ‘[r2][r3] According to the historian Professor Mubarak Ali, textbook reform in Pakistan began with the introduction of Pakistan Studies and Islamic studies by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto in 1971 into the national curriculum as a compulsory subject. Former military dictator Gen Zia-ul-Haq under a general drive towards Islamization, started the process of historical revisionism in earnest and exploited this initiative. ‘The Pakistani establishment taught their children right from the beginning that this state was built on the basis of religion – that’s why they don’t have tolerance for other religions and want to wipe-out all of them.’[r2][r3]
According to Pervez Hoodbhoy, a physics professor at Quaid-i-Azam University in Islamabad, the “Islamizing” of Pakistan’s schools began in 1976 when an act of parliament required all government and private schools (except those teaching the British O-levels from Grade 9) to follow a curriculum that includes learning outcomes for the federally approved Grade 5 social studies class such as: ‘Acknowledge and identify forces that may be working against Pakistan,’ ‘Make speeches on Jihad,’ ‘Collect pictures of policemen, soldiers, and national guards,’ and ‘India’s evil designs against Pakistan.’[r]
1971 Bangladesh atrocities
During the 1971 Bangladesh atrocities there were widespread killings and acts of ethnic cleansing of civilians in Bangladesh (then East Pakistan, a province of Pakistan), and widespread violations of human rights were carried out by the Pakistan Army, which was supported by political and religious militias during the Bangladesh Liberation War. In Bangladesh, the atrocities are identified as a genocide. Many of the victims were Hindus, and the total death toll was in the millions.[r1][r2] TIME magazine reported that “The Hindus, who account for three-fourths of the refugees and a majority of the dead, have borne the brunt of the Muslim military’s hatred.”[r3]
Hindu women have also been known to be victims of kidnapping and forced conversion to Islam.[r] Around 20 to 25 Hindu girls are abducted every month and converted to Islam forcibly.[r] Krishan Bheel, a Hindu member of the National Assembly of Pakistan, came into the news recently for manhandling Qari Gul Rehman after being taunted with a religious insult.[r]
On 18 October 2005, Sanno Amra and Champa, a Hindu couple residing in the Punjab Colony, Karachi, Sindh returned home to find that their three teenage daughters had disappeared. After inquiries to the local police, the couple discovered that their daughters had been taken to a local madrassah, had been converted to Islam, and were denied unsupervised contact with their parents.[r]
A Pakistan Muslim League politician has states that abduction of Hindus and Sikhs is a business in Pakistan, along with conversions of Hindus to Islam.[r] Forced conversion, rape, and forced marriages of Hindu women in Pakistan (akin to Love Jihad) have recently become very controversial in Pakistan.[r1][r2]
See also: Decline of Hinduism in Pakistan
Several Hindu temples have been destroyed in Pakistan. One of the several notable incident was the destruction of the Ramna Kali Mandir in former East Pakistan. The temple was bulldozed by the Pakistan Army on 27 March 1971.The Dhakeshwari Temple was severely damaged during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, and over half of the temple’s buildings were destroyed. The temple was desecrated by the Pakistan Army and used as an ammunition’s storage area. Several of the temple custodians were tortured and killed by the Army, including the Head Priest.
In 2006, the last Hindu temple in Lahore was destroyed to pave the way for construction of a multi-storied commercial building. When reporters from Pakistan-based newspaper Dawn tried to cover the incident, they were accosted by the henchmen of the property developer, who denied that a Hindu temple existed at the site.[r]
2005 unrest in Nowshera
On 29 June 2005, following the arrest of an illiterate Christian janitor on allegations of allegedly burning Qur’an pages, a mob of between 300 and 500 Muslims destroyed a Hindu temple and houses belonging to Christian and Hindu families in Nowshera. Under the terms of a deal negotiated between Islamic religious leaders and the Hindu/Christian communities, Pakistani police later released all previously arrested perpetrators without charge.[r]
During the Taliban regime, Sumptuary laws were passed in 2001 which forced Hindus to wear yellow badges in public to identify themselves as such. This has been similar to Adolf Hitler‘s treatment of Jews in Nazi Germany during World War II.[r2][r3] Hindu women were forced to dress according to Islamic hijab, ostensibly a measure to “protect” them from harassment. This was part of the Taliban’s plan to segregate “un-Islamic” and “idolatrous” communities from Islamic ones.[r] In addition, Hindus were forced to mark their places of residence identifying them as Hindu homes.
The decree was condemned by the Indian and United States governments as a violation of religious freedom.[r] Widespread protests against the Taliban regime broke out in Bhopal, India. In the United States, chairman of the Anti-Defamation League Abraham Foxman compared the decree to the practices of Nazi Germany, where Jews were required to wear labels identifying them as such.[r] The comparison was also drawn by California Democrat and holocaust survivor Tom Lantos, and New York Democrat and author of the bipartisan ‘Sense of the Congress’ non-binding resolution against the anti-Hindu decree Eliot L Engel.[r] In the United States, congressmen and several lawmakers.[r] wore yellow badges on the floor of the Senate during the debate as a demonstration of their solidarity with the Hindu minority in Afghanistan.[r]
Indian analyst Rahul Banerjee said that this was not the first time that Hindus have been singled out for state-sponsored oppression in Afghanistan. Violence against Hindus has caused a rapid depletion in the Hindu population over the years.[r] Since the 1990s many Afghan Hindus have fled the country, seeking asylum in countries such as Germany.[r]
In 1991–92, Bhutan expelled roughly 100,000 ethnic Nepalis (Lhotshampa), most of whom have been living in seven refugee camps in eastern Nepal ever since. The Lhotshampa are generally classified as Hindus.[r] In March 2008, this population began a multiyear resettlement to third countries including the U.S., Canada, New Zealand, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands and Australia.[r] At present, the United States is working towards resettling more than 60,000 of these refugees in the US as third country settlement programme.[r]
In 2005 and 2006 Kazakh officials persistently and repeatedly tried to close down the Hare Krishna farming community near Almaty.
On 20 November 2006, three buses full of riot police, two ambulances, two empty lorries, and executors of the Karasai district arrived at the community in sub-zero weather and evicted the Hare Krishna followers from thirteen homes, which the police proceeded to demolish.
The Forum 18 News Service reported, “Riot police who took part in the destruction threw the personal belongings of the Hare Krishna devotees into the snow, and many devotees were left without clothes. Power for lighting and heating systems had been cut off before the demolition began. Furniture and larger household belongings were loaded onto trucks. Officials said these possessions would be destroyed. Two men who tried to prevent the bailiffs from entering a house to destroy it were seized by 15 police officers who twisted their hands and took them away to the police car.”[r]
The Hare Krishna community had been promised that no action would be taken before the report of a state commission – supposedly set up to resolve the dispute – was made public. On the day the demolition began, the commission’s chairman, Amanbek Mukhashev, told Forum 18, “I know nothing about the demolition of the Hare Krishna homes – I’m on holiday.” He added, “As soon as I return to work at the beginning of December we will officially announce the results of the Commission’s investigation.” Other officials also refused to comment.
The United States urged Kazakhstan’s authorities to end what it called an “aggressive” campaign against the country’s tiny Hare Krishna community.[r]
Mumbai has been the most preferred target for most terrorist organisations, primarily the separatist forces from Pakistan. Over the past few years there have been a series of attacks, including explosions in local trains in July 2006, and the most recent and unprecedented attacks of 26 November 2008, when two of the prime hotels, a landmark train station, and a Jewish Chabad house, in South Mumbai, were attacked and sieged.
Terrorist attacks in Mumbai include:
- 12 March 1993 – Series of 13 bombs go off, killing 257
- 6 December 2002 – Bomb goes off in a bus in Ghatkopar, killing 2
- 27 January 2003 – Bomb goes off on a bicycle in Vile Parle, killing 1
- 14 March 2003 – Bomb goes off in a train in Mulund, killing 10
- 28 July 2003 – Bomb goes off in a bus in Ghatkopar, killing 4
- 25 August 2003 – Two Bombs go off in cars near the Gateway of India and Zaveri Bazaar, killing 50
- 11 July 2006 – Series of seven bombs go off in trains, killing 209
- 26 November 2008 to 29 November 2008 – Coordinated series of attacks, killing at least 172.
- 13 July 2011 – Three coordinated bomb explosions at different locations, killing 26
Terrorist attacks elsewhere in Maharashtra:
- 13 February 2010 – a bomb explosion at the German Bakery in Pune killed fourteen people, and injured at least 60 more
- 1 August 2012 – four bomb explosion at various locations on JM Road, Pune injured 1 person
Jammu and Kashmir
Armed insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir has killed tens of thousands to date.
2001 Attack on Indian parliament
Terrorists on 13 December 2001 attacked the Parliament of India, resulting in a 45-minute gun battle in which 9 policemen and parliament staff were killed. All five terrorists were also killed by the security forces and were identified as Pakistani nationals. The attack took place around 11:40 am (IST), minutes after both Houses of Parliament had adjourned for the day. The suspected terrorists dressed in commando fatigues entered Parliament in a car through the VIP gate of the building. Displaying Parliament and Home Ministry security stickers, the vehicle entered the Parliament premises. The terrorists set off massive blasts and used AK-47 rifles, explosives, and grenades for the attack. Senior Ministers and over 200 Members of Parliament were inside the Central Hall of Parliament when the attack took place. Security personnel sealed the entire premises, which saved many lives.
2005 Ayodhya attacks
The long simmering Ayodhya crisis finally culminated in a terrorist attack on the site of the 16th century Babri Masjid. The ancient Masjid in Ayodhya was demolished on 5 July 2005. Following the two-hour gunfight between Lashkar-e-Toiba terrorists based in Pakistan and Indian police, in which six terrorists were killed, opposition parties called for a nationwide strike with the country’s leaders condemning the attack, believed to have been masterminded by Dawood Ibrahim currently sheltered by Pakistan, as they sheltered and hide Osama bin laden.
2010 Varanasi blasts
On 7 December 2010, another blast occurred in Varanasi, that killed immediately a toddler, and set off a stampede in which 20 people, including four foreigners, were injured.[r] The responsibility for the attack was claimed by the Islamist millitant group Indian Mujahideen.[r]
2006 Varanasi blasts
A series of blasts occurred across the Hindu holy city of Varanasi on 7 March 2006. Fifteen people are reported to have been killed and as many as 101 others were injured. No one has accepted responsibility for the attacks, but it is speculated that the bombings were carried out in retaliation of the arrest of a Lashkar-e-Toiba agent in Varanasi earlier in February 2006.
On 5 April 2006 the Indian police arrested six Islamic militants, including a cleric who helped plan bomb blasts. The cleric is believed to be a commander of a banned Bangladeshi Islamic militant group, Harkatul Jihad-al Islami, and is linked to the Inter-Services Intelligence, the Pakistani spy agency ISI.[r]
1998 Coimbatore (INDIA) bombings
Tamil Nadu also faced terrorist attacks orchestrated by Muslim fundamentalists. For more information, see 1998 Coimbatore bombings.
For a long time, Kerala was considered as a terror free state and model of tolerance and prosperity. This reputation ceased in October 2008, when four young Malayalis were killed by Indian security forces in a jihadi training camp in Kashmir.
In July 2012, a different threat emerged when a group of young Muslims cut off the hand of a Christian professor, condemning him for writing an exam question they said insulted the Prophet Muhammad. According to Time Magazine, migrants to the Persian Gulf are taking extremist Islamic ideology to Kerala.[r]
1993 Bombay bombings
The 1993 Bombay bombings were a series of 13 bomb explosions that took place in Bombay (now Mumbai), Maharashtra, India on Friday, 12 March 1993.[r] The coordinated attacks were the most destructive bomb explosions in Indian history. The single-day attacks resulted in over 250 fatalities and 700 injuries.[r]
Muslim Population Growth per Census [r]
|Year||Total Population||Muslim Population||Percentage|
1981 Census: * Parts of Assam were not included in the 1981 Census Data due to violence in some districts.
1991 Census: ** Jammu and Kashmir was not included in the 1991 Census Data due to militant activity in the state.
2100 Data are Projected Population based on Sachar Committee and other Reports.
Recent times the crime records in pakistan is growing rapidly, all sort of terrorist activities rising in pakistan.
FBI Most Wanted Terrorists
To date, 11 of the original 22 fugitives are still at large.
|Photo||Name||Alleged terrorist activity||Date of activity||Status|
|Imad Mughniyah||TWA Flight 847||June 14, 1985||Dead|
|Assassinated in a car bombing on February 12, 2008 in Damascus.|
|Hassan Izz-Al-Din||TWA Flight 847||June 14, 1985||At large|
|Thought to be living in Lebanon.|
|Ali Atwa||TWA Flight 847||June 14, 1985||At large|
|Thought to be living in Lebanon.|
|Abdul Rahman Yasin||1993 World Trade Center bombing||February 26, 1993||At large|
|Accused of constructing bombs in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. Yasin was allegedly a prisoner of Saddam Hussein in 2002, but has since gone missing from Iraq.|
|Khalid Sheikh Mohammed||Bojinka plot||1994–1995||Captured|
|Captured in Pakistan on March 1, 2003.|
|Ahmed Ibrahim Al-Mughassil||Khobar Towers bombing||June 25, 1996||At large|
|Ali Saed Bin Ali El-Hoorie||Khobar Towers bombing||June 25, 1996||At large|
|Ibrahim Salih Mohammed Al-Yacoub||Khobar Towers bombing||June 25, 1996||At large|
|Abdelkarim Hussein Mohamed Al-Nasser||Khobar Towers bombing||June 25, 1996||At large|
|Mohammed Atef||1998 United States embassy bombings||August 7, 1998||Dead|
|Killed in Afghanistan on November 14, 2001 by a Predator missile attack on his home outside of Kabul.|
|Osama bin Laden||1998 United States embassy bombings||August 7, 1998||Dead|
|Killed by U.S. Navy Seals in a mansion in Abbottabad, Pakistan; announced dead May 2, 2011. He was wanted for his claimed responsibility in the September 11, 2001 attacks. He was placed on the Most Wanted Terrorists list for his involvement in the bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.|
|Ayman al-Zawahiri||1998 United States embassy bombings||August 7, 1998||At large|
|Al-Qaeda’s No.1. Ayman al-Zawahiri is under indictment in the United States for his suspected role in the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi, Kenya. The Rewards for Justice Program of the U.S. Department of State is offering a reward of up to US$25 million for information about his location and capture.|
|Fazul Abdullah Mohammed||1998 United States embassy bombings||August 7, 1998||Dead|
|Reports surfaced on June 11, 2011 that he was killed in Somalia. Kenyan police stated, through DNA testing, that they were certain he was killed by Somalian forces on June 8. Officially listed as deceased on the FBI website by June 12.|
|Mustafa Mohamed Fadhil||1998 United States embassy bombings||August 7, 1998||Dead|
|Killed in Afghanistan. Was removed from the list in 2005.|
|Fahid Mohammed Ally Msalam||1998 United States embassy bombings||August 7, 1998||Dead|
|Killed January 1, 2009, in an unmanned predator strike in Pakistan along with Sheikh Ahmed Salim Swedan.|
|Ahmed Ghailani||1998 United States embassy bombings||August 7, 1998||Captured|
|Captured in Pakistan on July 25, 2004, and later held in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Ghailani was tried by a civilian court in New York in 2010 and convicted of conspiring to bomb the American embassies in Tanzania and Kenya. The jury however acquitted him of all other 284 charges, including attempted murder.|
|Sheikh Ahmed Salim Swedan||1998 United States embassy bombings||August 7, 1998||Dead|
|Killed January 1, 2009, in an unmanned aerial strike in Pakistan along with Fahid Mohammed Ali Musallam.|
|Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah||1998 United States embassy bombings||August 7, 1998||At large|
|Believed to be in Iran.|
|Anas al-Liby||1998 United States embassy bombings||August 7, 1998||At large|
|Saif al-Adel||1998 United States embassy bombings||August 7, 1998||At large|
|Believed to be in Iran.|
|Ahmed Mohammed Hamed Ali||1998 United States embassy bombings||August 7, 1998||Dead|
|Reported as killed in a drone strike in 2010 in Pakistan by the National Counterterrorism Center. Was removed from the list by April 2012.|
|Muhsin Musa Matwalli Atwah||1998 United States embassy bombings||August 7, 1998||Dead|
|Killed April 12, 2006 along with 6 other alleged militants by Pakistani forces in a helicopter gunship raid on the village of Naghar Kalai near the Afghan border. Villagers reported that armed men removed the bodies. Atwah’s death was confirmed by US officials on October 24, 2006, following DNA testing, and he was removed from the list.|
In the above list all are muslim extremist, and again Pakistans name at large.
List of India’s Most Wanted Terrorists in Pakistan
India on Wednesday released a list of 50 “India’s most wanted terrorists”, including underworld don Dawood Ibrahim, 26/11 mastermind and LeT founder Hafiz Saeed and dreaded terrorist Zaki ur Rehman Lakhvi, hiding in that country.
Five Pakistani army majors also feature in the list of India’s top 50 wanted men, some of whom are believed to be hiding in Pakistan soil.
Hafiz Saeed, who is involved in Mumbai terror attack and various other attacks in India, tops the list.
The list also includes Jaish-e-Mohammed chief Maulana Masood Azhar, the principal accused in the 2001 Parliament attack after his release in exchange of hostages in the Khandhar hijack episode in 1999.
Taliban militia in front of the hijacked plane.
|Date||24 December 1999 – 1 January 2000|
|Site||Hijacked in Indian airspace between Kathmandu, Nepal and Delhi, India; landed at Amritsar, India; Lahore,Pakistan; Dubai; and Kandahar,Afghanistan.|
|Fatalities||1 (Rupin Katyal) A newly weded couple went for honeymoon was killed.|
|Aircraft type||Airbus A300|
|Flight origin||Tribhuvan International Airport
|Destination||Indira Gandhi International Airport
The Indian Airlines flight 814 (VT-EDW) had 178 passengers on board (most of whom were Indian nationals) that were coming to India after vacationing in Nepal.[r] It was hijacked on 24 December 1999, shortly after the aircraft entered Indian airspace at about 17:30 IST.[r] The identities of the hijackers according to the Indian Government were Pakistanis:[r]
- Ibrahim Azhar, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
- Shahid Akhtar Sayed, Karachi, Pakistan
- Sunny Ahmed Qazi, Karachi, Pakistan
- Mistri Zahoor Ibrahim, Karachi, Pakistan
- Shakir, Sukkur, Pakistan
- Shoaib Khan, Punjab, Pakistan
READ THE FULL STORY AT WIKIPEDIA
VIDEOS TO WATCH: BY NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC CHANNEL (a must watch)
The full list of INDIA’S MOST WANTED is as follows: source ALL BELIEVE TO BE PAKISTANIS.
to be continued..
* sources of information:-
|1.||K.S. Lal, The Legacy of Jihad: Muslims Invade India, Prometheus Books|
|2.||Will Durant, Our Oriental Heritage, Simon and Schuster. New York, 1954|
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